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Abstract Detail

Genetics Section

Wicke, Susann [4], Quandt, D. [1], Muller, Kai F. [2], Wickett, Norman J. [3], dePamphilis, Claude W. [3], Schneeweiss, Gerald M. [4].

Plastid Genome Evolution - What’s so different between autotrophs, semi- and non-autrophic flowering plants?

The plastid genome is known to be highly conserved among flowering (and land) plants. The present work illustrates the conserved evolution of the angiosperm plastome in a phylogenetic framework comparing genome structure and evolution in nearly all major lineages of angiosperms. As a group of plants that exhibit major changes in plastid genome structure, both semi- and non-autotrophic plants will be discussed in order to explore and understand the subtle but continuous reduction of genomes under relaxed evolutionary constraints. The transition from a fully autotrophic way of life towards a complete heterotrophic lifestyle (i.e. complete loss of photosynthesis) via various levels of semi-autotrophy severely affects plastome stability and evolution. In the present study, plastid genomes from several hemiparasitic and holoparasitic representatives of the broomrape family (Orobanchaceae) have been sequenced and analyzed with respect to co-linearity, gene content, pseudogenization and substitution rates. One focus is the rate heterogeneity among distinguished gene classes, single genes and gene operons, as well as the evolution of non-protein coding plastome fractions. Relaxation of evolutionary constraints appears to occur much earlier during the evolution of parasitism than previously assumed and strongly affects structural integrity of distinct plastome fragments.

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Related Links:
Details on the Evolution of non-photosynthetic Parasitic Broomrapes (Orobanchaceae)
Eudicot Evolutionary Research

1 - Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Nees-Institut für Biodiversität der Pflanzen, Meckenheimer Allee 170, D-53115, Bonn, Germany
2 - Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Hüfferstrasse 1, Münster, 48149, Germany
3 - Pennsylvania State University, Department of Biology, 403 Life Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802, USA
4 - University of Vienna, Biogeography and Botanical Garden, Rennweg 14, Vienna, A-1030, Austria

plastid genome
genome evolution
rate heterogeneity
parasitic plants
hemiparasitic plants.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Session: 1
Location: 556A/Convention Center
Date: Monday, August 2nd, 2010
Time: 8:15 AM
Number: 1002
Abstract ID:435

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